Using artificial intelligence, the researchers looked for a link between nearly 1.5 thousand blood proteins and the development of dementia in the future. They found four proteins that were present in unusual amounts in those people who became ill at an older age. We are talking about Gfap, Nefl, Gdf15 and Ltbp2.
Inflammation in the brain can trigger astrocyte cells to over-produce Gfap - a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. Another blood protein, Nefl, is associated with damage to nerve fibers. At the same time, higher than normal Gdf15 levels can occur after damage to the blood vessels of the brain.
Scientists have found that increasing levels of Gfap and Ltbp2 are highly specific for dementia. Moreover, changes occur at least 10 years before people are officially diagnosed.